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Go Back       International Academic Journal of Advanced Practices in Nursing | Int Aca. J Adv Prct. Nurs; | 1 1 ( Oct. 21, 2020 ) : 46-49
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DOI : 10.47310       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Knowledge Regarding Conduct Disorder among Primary School Teachers in Selected Primary Schools of Shimla City


Article History

Received: 25.09.2020; Accepted: 08.10.2020; Revision: 18.10.2020; Published: 21.10.2020

Author Details

Mrs. Shashi Kiran1 and Dr. Harvinder Kaur2

Authors Affiliations

1PhD Scholar, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh & Clinical Instructor cum Sister Tutor, Sister Nivedita Govt. Nursing College, IGMC, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.

2Supervisor, Himalayan University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh India


Abstract: Background: Children with conduct disorders often experience problems in interpersonal and academic relationships and achievements, which are typically suffer serious problems for themselves and those care for them (involve their teachers). The behaviors associated with conduct disorders may be first observed by teachers and they play a pivotal role in the recognition, referral and treatment of conduct disorders. Objectives: The objectives of the present study were (i) to assess the knowledge of primary school teachers regarding conduct disorders (ii) to associate the knowledge regarding conduct disorders with selected socio-demographic variables. Material & Methods: A cross sectional descriptive research study was done from June-July 2018 among 100 primary school teachers selected from 20 schools of Shimla city. A pre-validated, self administered, structured questionnaire was used for data collection and random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Knowledge score was measured in the following three categories: Good, average and Poor. Mean frequency & Chi square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean score of knowledge regarding conduct disorder was 5.18 ±1.77. Results revealed that only two fifth of the primary school teachers (43%) had average knowledge about conduct disorder. There was no significant association of their age, gender, professional qualification, teaching experience, religion and marital status with their knowledge regarding conduct disorders. Conclusion: Study reveals that most of the school teachers have inadequate knowledge regarding conduct disorders among primary school teachers and they need to be educated and trained regarding conduct disorders.


Keywords: Conduct disorders, Knowledge, Primary School Teachers, Shimla.


Introduction

Behavioural problems can happen in children of all ages. Some children have serious behavioural problems. Sometimes, a child's behaviour can affect their development and interfere with their ability to lead a normal life. When behaviour is this much of a problem, it is called a conduct disorder. Conduct disorder can cause a lot of distress to children, families, schools and local communities Savitha et al., (2016).


Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by a pattern of behaviour that violates the basic rights of others or age appropriate norms and rules of society. Conduct disorder can be extremely challenging for parents, teachers, and mental health professionals. Conduct disorder also exacts a high cost in terms of personal loss for children, families, and society (Savitha et al., 2016; & Ogundele, M. O. 2018).


Conduct disorder is one of the most difficult disorders to treat because it is complex and requires carefully designed and coordinated treatment interventions aimed at multiple areas of functioning. Considerable resources are required to properly assess and implement an effective treatment plan for children with conduct disorder. Conduct disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed disorders of childhood and adolescence (Savitha et al., 2016; & Ogundele, M. O. 2018; & Sagar, R. et al., 2019).


India is home to almost 19% of the world’s children. More than 1/3rd of the country’s population, around 440 million is below 18 years. In that 8–10% of children are between 6 and 10 years of age. Conduct is the most serious psychiatric disorder. Studies shows that 6–10% boys and 2–9% of girls have conduct disorders. Serious violation of rules, often stays outside at night despite parental prohibition begins before 13years of age and the problem of running away from home overnight are some of the major conduct disorders (Frank, T. 2000; & Naganandini, R. 2018).


Difficulty in school is an early sign of potential conduct disorder problems. While the child’s IQ tends to be in normal range, they can have trouble with verbal and abstract reasoning skills and lack behind their classmates. Consequently, they feel as if they do not “fit in.” The frustration and loss of self-esteem resulting from this academic and social inadequacy can trigger the development of conduct disorder (Sreevani, R. 2010 & Naganandini, R. 2018).


Objectives of the Study

  1. To assess the knowledge of primary school teachers regarding conduct disorder in Shimla city.

  2. To find the Association of knowledge of primary school teachers with selected demographic variables (Age, Years of teaching experience, Educational qualification, religion, Marital status).


Materials and Methods

Research Approach -Descriptive


Research Design- Descriptive cross-sectional design


Setting of the study- Primary School of Shimla City


Study duration- between June-July 2018


Study population- Primary school teachers of Shimla city


Sample size-100 Primary school teachers


Sampling Technique-Randomly Sampling Technique


Sampling criteria- 20 Primary school were selected randomly from all primary schools of Shimla city and 5 Primary school teachers who were present on the day of the study were selected randomly after explaining the purpose of the study.


Informed consent/assent was taken from selected primary school teachers and confidentiality of the teachers was also maintained

Inclusive Criteria- Teachers available during the period of data collection in study setting and who were willing to participate in the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

Teachers who were not willing to participate in the study and who were not present during data collection.


Development of Tool:

Knowledge related questionnaires (15)


Description of Tool

Section A-Socio-demographic characteristics of the Primary school teachers (Age, Gender, Educational status, marital status, religion and Source of information regarding conduct disorder).


Sections B-There were fifteen structured knowledge questionnaire having four options. The teacher had to choose right one. One mark was given for each correct answer and zero for incorrect answer. The maximum score was 15 and minimum score was zero. Scoring was done on the basis of marks as > 66%(11-15)=Good, 33%-66%( (5-10) =Average,<33 ( 0-5)=Poor


Validity of tool - by the experts in this field


Permission- obtained from the concerned head of the schools.


Ethical Consideration- Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Ethical Committee of Himalayan University for conducting the study.


Data collection: By myself under the guidance of supervisors and Teachers was given 15 minutes time to complete that questionnaire and collected at the end of the prescribed time


Data analysis: With appropriate statistical test in terms of frequencies, percentage, mean, standard deviation and Chi-Square test. P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

Results

Table 1: Socio-demographic variables of Primary school teachers


Frequency

Percent

Age groups

26-30 Years

26

26.0

31-35 Years

26

26.0

36-40 Years

29

29.0

>40 Years

19

19.0

Gender

Male

58

58.0

Female

42

42.0

Educational qualifications

Teachers training course

2

2.0

Junior basic teachers

36

36.0

B.Ed.

58

58.0

M.Ed

4

4.0

Years of teaching experience

<5 years

10

10.0

6-10 years

20

20.0

11-15 years

29

29.0

16-20 years

20

20.0

>20 years

21

21.0

Religion

Hindu

95

95.0

Muslims

5

5.0

Nature of employment

Temporary

17

17.0

permanent

83

83.0

Child psychiatry in their curriculum

Yes

97

97.0

No

3

3.0

Previous information regarding behavioral problems

Yes

94

94.0

No

6

6.0


This table-1 depicts that for age group, 26% of teacher came between the age group of 26-30 years, 26% participants came in the age group of 31-35 years, 29% came in the age group of 36-40 years while 19% teachers came in the age group of > 40 years. With respect to gender, 58% of teachers were male and remaining 42% were female, For educational qualification, 2% participants have done teacher training course, 36% have junior basic teachers, 58% have done their B.Ed. and remaining 4% teachers have M.Ed qualification. For years of teaching experience, 10% of teachers have < 5 years experience, 20% teachers have 6-10 years experience, 29% have 11-15


years experience, 20% teachers have 16-20 years experience while 21% teachers have total >20 years experience. With respect to religion, 95% teaches were from Hindu and 5% teachers were from Muslim religion. For nature of employment, 17% teachers were in temporary job and 83% teachers were permanent job. With respect to Child psychiatry in their curriculum, 97% teachers had in the category of yes and 3% teachers had in the category of no. For previous information regarding behavioral problems, 94% teachers had information regarding behavioral problems while 6% had no information regarding behavioral problems.

Table 2: Knowledge regarding Conduct Disorders among Primary school teachers


Frequency

Percent

Knowledge score

Poor (0-5 marks)

57

57.0

Average (6-10 marks)

43

43.0

Good(11-15 marks)

0

0.0

Total

100

100.0

Mean score

5.18 ± 1.77

The mean score of Conduct Disorders knowledge was 5.18 ± 1.77. Results revealed that only two fifth of the primary school teachers (43%) had average knowledge while three fifth (57%) had Poor knowledge about Conduct Disorders. None of the participants had Good knowledge regarding Conduct Disorders.


Table 3: Association of knowledge of Conduct Disorder & Socio-demographic variables of Primary school teachers


Knowledge Score

Total

P value

Poor

Average

Age groups

26-30 Years


Count

12(46.2%)

14(53.8%)

26(100.0%)




0.182

31-35 Years

Count

17(65.4%)

9(34.6%)

26(100.0%)

36-40 Years


Count

14(48.3%)

15(51.7%)

29(100.0%)

>40 Years

Count

14(73.7%)

5(26.3%)

19(100.0%)

Gender

Male

Count

36(62.1%)

22(37.9%)

58(100.0%)

0.831

Female

Count

21(50.0%)

21(50.0%)

42(100.0%)

Educational qualifications

Teachers training course

Count

0(0.0%)

2(100.0%)

2(100.0%)

0.252

Junior basic teachers

Count

28(77.8%)

8(22.2%)

36(100.0%)

B.Ed.

Count

28(48.3%)

30(51.7%)

58(100.0%)

M.Ed

Count

1(25.0%)

3(75.0%)

4(100.0%)

Years of teaching experience

<5 years

Count

2(20.0%)

8(80.0%)

10(100.0%)

0.140

6-10 years

Count

12 (60.0%)

8(40.0%)

20(100.0%)

11-15 years

Count

17(58.6%)

12(41.4%)

29(100.0%)

16-20 years

Count

12(60.0%)

8(40.0%)

20(100.0%)

>20 years

Count

14(66.7%)

7(33.3%)

21(100.0%)

Religion

Hindu

Count

55(57.9%)

40(42.1%)

95(100.0%)

1.000

Muslims

Count

2(40.0%)

3(60.0%)

5(100.0%)

Nature of employment

Temporary

Count

7(41.2%)

10(58.8%)

17(100.0%)

0.401

Permanent

Count

50(60.2%)

33(39.8%)

83(100.0%)

Child psychiatry in their curriculum

Yes

Count

56(57.7%)

41(42.3%)

97(100.0%)

1.000

No

Count

1(33.3%)

2(66.7%)

3(100.0%)

Previous information regarding behavioral problems

Yes

Count

56(59.6%)

38(40.4%)

94(100.0%)

0.824

No

Count

1(16.67%)

5(83.33%)

6(100.0%)

Total

Count

68(68.0%)

32(32.0%)

100(100.0%)


This table 3 depicts that there is no association with above listed demographic variables i.e. age groups, genders, educational qualifications, years of teaching experience, religion, nature of employment, child psychiatry in their curriculum and previous information regarding behavioral problems with Knowledge of Primary school teachers regarding Conduct Disorders.

Discussion

The mean score of Conduct Disorders knowledge was 5.18±1.77.Only two fifth of the primary school teachers (43%) had average knowledge while three fifth (57%) had Poor knowledge about Conduct Disorders. Similar types of findings were also observed by study done by Naganandini, R. (2018). But our study results were contrary to the study done by Savitha et al., (2016).


There was no significant association of their age, gender, professional qualification, teaching experience, religion and marital status with their knowledge regarding Conduct Disorders. Similar results were reported in the study done by Savitha et al., (2016) and Naganandini, R. (2018).

Conclusion and recommendation

Our study revealed that most of the school teachers have inadequate knowledge regarding conduct disorders. Results from this study bring light to the fact that schools should invest in faculty development and arrange structured courses and workshops on regarding conduct disorders and prepare the teachers to deal with special needs of children with regarding conduct disorders. All teachers need to be educated, trained and supported to further their professional development regarding conduct disorders because the teachers who are knowledgeable about ADHD are better prepared to be in a position to offer adequate teaching, assistance, and support for children with conduct disorders


Future implications

This study considered the situation in the governmental primary schools only; future studies should be conducted to assess the situation in private schools as well. Same study can be conducted by using large sample to generalize the findings. A study may be undertaken to assess the effectiveness of STP on knowledge on prevention of conduct problems among school teachers. A comparative study can also be undertaken to assess the knowledge of teachers with patents of ADHD children.


Acknowledgment

The authors acknowledge all the teachers for taking out time from their busy schedule and participating in the study.


Financial support and sponsorship: Nil.


Conflicts of interest: There are no conflicts of interest.


References

  1. Frank, T. (2000). Neurological and Psychiatric Disorder. Ireland: Ireland Human Press; 13p.

  2. Naganandini, R. (2018). Knowledge on Prevention of Conduct Problems among School Teachers. Int J. of Advances in NurManagement. 6(2), 106-108.

  3. Ogundele, M. O. (2018). Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: a brief overview for paediatricians. World journal of clinical pediatrics7(1), 9–26.

  4. Sagar, R., Patra, B. N., & Patil, V. (2019). Clinical practice guidelines for the management of conduct disorder. Indian journal of psychiatry61(Suppl 2), 270–276

  5. Savitha et al. (2016). A Study To Assess The Knowledge Regarding Selected Common Behavioural Problems of Children Among Primary School Teachers In Selected Schools At Mangaluru. International Journal of Recent Scientific Research. 7(8),13018-13020.

  6. Sreevani, R. (2010). A Guide to Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing. Kundii: Sanathe Printers; 221–43p

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