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Go Back       International Academic Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences | IAR J Nut Fd. Sci ; 2021; 2(1): | Volume:2 Issue:1 ( Feb. 10, 2021 ) : 28-35
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjnfs2021.v02i01.005       Download PDF       HTML       XML



Comparative Evaluation of Phyto Chemical Composition and In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of N-Hexane Extract Of Two Types of Ipomoea Batatas and Standard Nutraceutical

Article History

Received: 15.01.2021, Revision: 22. 01.2021, Accepted: 05. 02.2021, Published: 10. 02.2021

Author Details

Nweze Chibuzor Carole *, Haruna Gambo Sunday, Ijeomah Ann Ukamaka, James Bamidele and Muhammed Jimoh Iliasu

Authors Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nasarawa State University, PMB 1022, Keffi, Nasarawa State Nigeria

Abstract: The plant tuber, I. batatas may be regarded as a functional food if found to contain some beneficial bioactive compounds which may improve health and management of diseases. The current study comparatively evaluated the phytochemical composition, in-vitro antioxidant activity as well as free radical scavenging properties of n-hexane extract of white I. batatas and pink I. batatas with a standard synthetic nutraceutical. All analyses followed standard methods. Phytochemical analysis of the I. batatas revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and phenol in the extracts of the two I. batatas pecies. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of the pink I. batatas (36.27±0.01, 38.71±0.01, 49.34±0.01, 53.59±0.01, 54.63±0.01) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher compared to the standard neutraceutical (39.18±0.01, 43.65±0.01, 43.93±0.01, 54.19±0.01, 57.24±0.01). Ascorbic acid (15.48±2.94 mg/dl) and Vitamin B2 (1.30±0.26 mg/dl) concentrations in the pink I. batata extract were significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared to the standard Nutraceutical (11.81±8.04) and (1.16±0.02) resspectively. A higher percentage inhibition of the radical “ferric ion” by the white and pink I. batatas was higher when compared to the standard nutraceutical. The 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity was significantly (p < 0.05) higher by the white (75.19±0.01, 75.66±0.02, 73.56±0.01, 71.94±0.03, 69.36±0.01) and the pink (77.45±0.01, 75.22±0.01, 76.73±0.01, 74.64±0.01, 72.37±0.01) compared to the standard nutraceutical (74.17±0.01,74.36±0.01, 75.46±0.01, 74.28±0.01, 72.10±0.01). Hydrogen peroxide decomposition activity was also significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the white (55.59±0.02) and pink (57.63±0.01) I. batatas at 0.4 mg/ml sample concentrations compared to the standard nutraceutical. The results of this research showed that the white and pink I. batata extracts are rich in phytochemicals and vitamins and possess free radical scavenging and inhibiting abilities, indicating their prospects of being used as natural nutraceuticals and could serve as alternatives to the synthetic nutraceuticals which are often expensive and inaccessible by rural dwellers.

Keywords: Phytochemical, Nutraceutical, Ipomea batatas, Antioxidant, free radical, inhibition, scavenging, n-Hexane, In-Vitro.

INTRODUCTION

Functional foods are foods that have potentially positive effect on health beyond basic nutrition (Kumar, J., & Pal, A. 2015). A food can be said to be functional if it is satisfactorily demonstrated to effect one or more beneficial target functions in the body, beyond adequate nutrition effect, in a way which is relevant to either the state of well-being and health or reduction of risk of disease (Kumar, J., & Pal, A. 2015).

Nutraceuticals are any non-toxic food extract supplements that have scientifically proven health benefit both in the treatment and prevention of disease (Borchers, A. T. et al., 2016). Most nutraceuticals are synthetic, processed and packaged in different forms either as tablets or capsules or liquid products with different brand names. Consuming them for whatever purpose may not be without some side effects because they may also interact negatively with body cells as it is the case with some conventional drugs under certain conditions. In the case of human beings, a healthy diet may include the food and storage methods that preserve nutrients from oxidation, heat or leaching, and that reduce risk of food borne diseases (Borchers, A. T. et al., 2016). This may sometimes not be achievable due to lapses in the production, formulation, packaging, storage and even transportation of the substances across to end-users, unlike the case where these active substances were to be sourced from the immediate environment from naturally existing plants. One of such plants this study evaluated for the potential of being used as a natural nutraceutical is I. batata, commonly known as sweet potato.

The crop plant, I. batata is dicotyledonous in nature that belong to the family Convolvulaceae and it’s a root tuber vegetable plant with large starchy sweet-tasting tubers. The plant is a herbaceous and perennial, bearing alternate heart-shaped leaves and medium-sized sympetalous flowers. The edible tuber is long and tapered, with a smooth skin surface whose colour is often white/yellow, orange, red, brown, purple, and beige. Its flesh ranges from beige through white, red, pink, violet, yellow, orange, and purple. The two types used in this study were the tubers of the white and pink coloured I. batatas.

Figure is Available in PDF Format

Figure 1: White I.batata

Figure is Available in PDF Format

Figure 2: Pink I. batata

Taxonomical classification of ipomoea batatas

Kingdom: plantae

Clade: angiosperm

Clade: Eudicots

Order: solanales

Family: convolvulaceae

Genus: ipomoea

Species: batatas

Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are non-essential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life (Badhani SA et al., 2006). It is well-known that plants produce these chemicals to protect themselves but recent research demonstrate that they can also protect humans against diseases. Some of the well-known phytochemicals are lycopene in tomatoes, iso-flavones in soy and flavonoids in fruits (Aronson, J. K. 2017).

Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables (Carocho, M., & Ferreira, I. C. 2013). They are also available as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include; Beta-carotene, Lutein, Lycopene, Selenium, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E (López-Alarcón, C., & Denicola, A. 2013).

The plant, I. batatas has played an important role as an energy and phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. The plant has significant medicinal importance and various parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine (Zhao, G. et al., 2005).

The leaves are used by some Ghanian locals to treat or manage type 2 diabetes (Abel, C., & Busia, K. 2013) and in the treatment of inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil (Pochapski, M. T. et al., 2011). In regions of Kagawa, Japan, a variety of sweet potato has been eaten raw to treat anemia, hypertension, and diabetes (Ludvik, B. et al., 2004). The vines of Ipomoea batatas were used for treatment of prostatitis (Emmanuel, N. (2010). The Monpa ethnic groups of Arunachal Pradesh, India use the tubers of sweet potato as a staple food and the leaves as fish feed (Namsa, N. D. et al., 2011). The plant, I. batatas, which originated in Central America, is now widely cultivated and consumed in many parts of the world, including Nigeria due to the many benefits that are derived from various parts of the plant. Due to its wide acceptability and cheap accessibility by even the people in rural areas, the researchers thought it wise to explore it for even more useful purposes with scientific backing, hence this research aimed at evaluating the phytochemical composition, antioxidant status, free radical scavenging and inhibiting properties on two of the many existing tuber colour types. This we hoped to achieve by comparing it with a standard existing and conventionally used nutraceutical. To achieve our aim, we analyzed the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition of the two tuber type extract, analyzed the antioxidant status by determining the concentration of vitamin C, thiamine and riboflavin, free radical scavenging and inhibiting properties.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Chemicals

The 2,2-diphyenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothialine-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich USA. Nutraceutical (CellGevity®) was purchased from a distributing company; Max International® Nigeria. All other chemical and reagents used were of analytical grade and purchased from reputable chemical companies.

Preparation of Nutraceutical

Exactly 1g of Cellgevity was weighed and dissolved in 100mls of distilled water. This was placed on bench top shaker (MaxQ 4000 orbital shaker) for 1h to obtain thorough mixture. Afterwards, the solution was kept in a refrigerator until commencement of the experiment.

Sample collection and processing

Fresh samples of white and pink I. batatas tubers were purchased from Keffi main Market in Keffi Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. They were wrapped in black polythene bags and taken to the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nasarawa State University, Keffi, Nigeria. The tubers were washed with tap water and peeled using a kitchen knife. The peeled tubers were sliced in to smaller pieces and air-dried at room temperature in the laboratory under a ceiling fan for 14 days. The dried samples were then ground to powder using a mechanical grinder. A quantity (400g) of each of the two samples were soaked in 2 ml n-hexane for 48 hours with occasional hand- shaking of the container for maximum extraction. The mixture was then filtered using a muslin cloth and further filtered with whatman No. 4 filter paper. The extract was then concentrated by rotary evaporation to recover the solvent. Each concentrated extract was then stored in a refrigerator till commencement of the experiment.

Determination of phytochemical property

The phytochemical properties of the n-hexane extract of the white and pink I. batatas was analysed in order to detect the presence of phytochemical compounds in the samples. Both determinations were carried out according to the methods described by other studies (Harbone, J.B. 1973; Trease, G.E., & Evans, W.C. 1989; & Omaye, S. T. et al., 1979) as outlined below;

Test for alkaloids

A quantity (0.2 g) of extract was mixed with 10 ml 2% HCl, heated for 5 minutes then filtered. To 1 ml filtrate was added 1 ml of Wagner’s reagent. A creamy white precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids.

Test for steroids

To 0.2 g of methanol extract was added 2 ml of acetic anhydride. The solution was subsequently added 2 ml of concentrated H2SO4 carefully. A colour change from violet to green or bluish green in sample indicates the presence of steroids.

Test for carbohydrate (Molisch’s Test)

To 0.2 g of extract was added 10 ml of distilled water and then boiled for 5 minutes before filtering. To 1ml filtrate, 100 μl of Molisch solution was added followed by the addition of 1 ml concentrated H2SO4. A brown ring formation at interface indicates the presence of carbohydrate.

Test for flavonoids

A quantity of the sample (0.2g) was heated with 10ml ethyl acetate in boiling water for 3 minutes. The mixture was filtered, and the filtrate was used for the following tests.

(i) Ammonium test: Four millilitres (4ml) of the filtrate was shaken with 1ml of dilute ammonium solution to obtain two layers. The layers were allowed to separate. A yellow precipitate observed in the ammonium layer indicated the presence of flavonoids.

(ii) Aluminium chloride test: Four millilitres (4ml) of the filtrate was shaken with 1ml of 1% aluminium chloride solution and observed for light yellow colouration that indicated the presence of flavonoids.

Test for tannins (Ferric chloride test)

To 0.2 g of extract was added 10 ml of 45% ethanol, boiled for 5 minutes and then filtered. To 1 ml filtrate, 200 μl of ferric chloride was added. An observation of brownish green precipitate indicated the presence of tannins.

Test for saponin

A quantity (0.2 g) of extract was dissolved with 10ml distilled water, warmed for a minute and then filtered. To 1 ml filtrate was added 4 ml of distilled water, shaken thoroughly for 5 minutes before allowing to stand for 1 minute. Persistence of foam indicates the presence of saponins.

Test for terpenoids

A quantity (0.2g) of the extract was dissolved in ethanol and 1 ml of acetic anhydride was added to the solution. A few drops of concentrated H2SO4 was then added to the solution. A change in colour from pink to violet showed the presence of terpenoids.

Test for phenolics

To 0.2g of the extract was added 2 ml of distilled water. Then 0.5 ml Na2CO3 and 0.5 ml Folin Ciocalteau reagent was subsequently added. Formation of a blue-green colour indicated the presence of phenols.

Acid Test

To 0.2 g of extract was added 10ml of distilled water, heated for 5 minutes and then filtered. A blue litmus paper was dipped into the filtrate. A change to red indicated acidity.

Test for Cyanogenic Glycosides

To 1 g of the extract in a conical flask was added 10 ml water and 1 ml dilute HCl. Picrate paper was suspended above the mixture. The contents of the flask were heated at 45oC for 1 hour. A control without the extract was set up. A colour change from yellow to reddish purple of the picrate paper was a positive test.

Total Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)

Ascorbic acid concentration was determined according to the standard method described by (Gernah, D.I. et al., 2007) as outlined thus; A sample (0.5ml) of the extract was mixed with 1.5ml of 6% TCA and centrifuged for 10 minutes at 300 rpm, after which 0.5ml of the supernatant was mixed with 0.5ml of Ascorbic acid reagents and allowed to stand at room temperature for an additional 3 hours and then added 2.5ml of 80% sulphuric acid and left undisturbed for 30 minutes. The absorbance was read using UV-spectrophotometer at 530nm. A set of standards containing 10-50 micro gram of ascorbic acid were taken and processed similarly along with a blank. The assay was carried out in triplicate.

Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Vitamin B1 concentration was measured Spectrophotometrically according to the method described by (Harrisaranraj, R. et al., 2009) as outlined below. A sample (5g) of the samples was homogenized with ethanolic sodium hydroxide (50ml). It was filtered into a 100ml flask and 10ml of the filtered was pipetted. The colour developed by addition of potassium dichromate and the absorbance was read using UV-spectrophotometer at 360nm. A blank sample was prepared and treated as the sample. The assay was carried out in triplicate.

Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

The concentration of Vitamin B2 was also measures following the procedure described by (Harrisaranraj, R. et al., 2009) using a UV-spectrophotometer. Briefly, about 5g of the sample was extracted with 100ml of 50% ethanol solution and shaken for one hour and filtered into100ml flask. Exactly, 10ml of the extract was pipetted into 50ml of volumetric flask followed by addition of 10ml of 5% potassium permanganate and 10ml of 30% H2O2 and allowed to stand over a hot water bath at 40oC for 30 minutes. Thereafter, 2ml of 40% sodium phosphate was added. The absorbance was then read using a UV-spectrophotometer at 510nm. This assay was carried out in triplicates and the mean values reported.

Determination of in-vitro free Radical Scavenging activity

The scavenging effect of chitosan on DPPH radical was examined using the modified method described by (Shimada, K. et al., 1992). The free radical scavenging activity of the I. batatas extracts was measured in terms of hydrogen donating or radical scavenging ability. The DPPH solution (0.1mM) in ethanol was made, and 1.0ml of this solution was added to 3.0 ml of the I. batatas extract solutions in water at different concentrations. The mixture was shaken vigorously using a vortex mixer, it was left to stand for 30min in the dark room (to avoid light reaction) and the absorbance was then measured at 517nm against a blank solution. Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. Lower absorbance of the reaction mixture indicates higher free radical scavenging activity and vice versa. The capability to scavenge the DPPH radical was calculated using the equation below;

The mean values were obtained from triplicate experiments.

DPPH of radical scavenging activity (%) = (Control OD-Sample OD / Control OD) × 100

Absorbance Blank = 0.2712

Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity

The ability of the extract to break down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen was determined according to the method described by (Ruch, R. J. et al., 1989). Briefly, 4M hydrogen peroxide was prepared in phosphate buffer saline of pH 7.4. Exactly, 4mls of various concentrations (0.2.1.0mg/ml) of each extract was added to 0.6ml of hydrogen peroxide. The absorbance was read after 10 minutes at 230nm using a UV-spectrophotometer against a blank solution containing sample without hydrogen peroxide. The inhibition rate (1%) on the hydrogen peroxide was calculated using the expression below:

1% = [(Acontrol-Asample)/ (Acontrol)] x 100

Where Acontrol is the absorbance of the control reaction (containing all reagents except the test compound) and Asample is the absorbance of the test compound. The procedure was carried out in triplicate.

Determination of 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) Radical Scavenging Activity

The Assay for 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging was determined using Benzie and strain and Moore et al.,, modified method (Pellegrini, N. et al., 2003; & Moore, J. et al., 2005). This method is based on the capacity of antioxidant to quench the ABTS by donating electrons to it. Spectrophotometer was calibrated with typical; trolox standard concentrations in steps of various concentrations (0.2-1.0mg/ml) of the test sample (n- hexane extract of white and pink I. batatas tuber) and nutraceuticals extracts were added in separate test tubes. It was incubated for 1 minute with 1.25ml of ABTS + working solution (100µl of ABTS + activated solution in 10ml ethanol) and absorbance was measured at 734nm with a spectrophotometer.

%Fe chelating activity = test absorbance – control / test absorbance x 100

Absorbance of the control = 0.005; note absorbance of the test samples at different concentration are mean values of triplicate readings.

Statistical Analysis

The data obtained were analyzed using one- way ANOVA with the help of the software, IBM Statistical product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 21.0, further test for level of significance was done using Duncan test. The p value of less than 0.05 (p < 0.05) was considered significant for all the data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Qualitative Phytochemicals Composition of I. batatas

The phytochemical analysis conducted on both the white and pink fleshed I. batatas extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and phenol in the two I. batata extract as shown in table 1. Phytochemical compounds are secondary metabolites of plant, with different activities such as action against pathogens and predators, mechanical support, attraction of pollinating animals and protection against ultraviolet radiation. Some of the phytochemicals may possess biological properties such as anti-apoptosis, anti-aging, anti-carcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascular protection and cell proliferation activities. The assay showed the presence of saponins. Saponins for instance are known to exert inhibitory effect on inflammation of cells. These phytochemical compounds are known to support bioactive activities in medicinal plants and thus responsible for the antioxidant activities of the plant extracts used in this study. Glycosides have been reported to demonstrate good antioxidant potential by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Alkaloids have also been reported to possess antioxidant potential by mitigating the effect of free radicals. The presence of phenolic acids in the plant tuber extracts used in this study is also an advantage because phenolic acids are known to act as potent antioxidants by transferring hydrogen atom from their OH groups to the chain‐carrying ROO radicals thereby neutralizing its oxidative properties.

Vitamins composition of the n-hexane extracts

Results of the total antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin of the white and pink I. batatas compared to the standard nutraceutical is presented in table 2. Ascorbic acid (15.48±2.94 mg/dl) and Vitamin B2 (1.30±0.26 mg/dl) concentrations in the pink Ipomea batata extract were significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared to the standard Nutraceutical’s concentration of vitamin C (11.81±8.04 mg/dl) and vitamin B2 (1.16±0.02). Vatamin C is known to be a very good antioxidant as it helps in cushioning the oxidative effects of free radicals on cells. This study therefore indicates that the red I. batata could effectively be used as a naturally sourced antioxidant to serve as an alternative to the synthetic neutraceuticals.

DPPH radical scavenging activity of the n-hexane extracts of I. babatas

The DPPH scavenging activities of the n-hexane extract of white and pink I. batatas is presented in table 3. The results showed a higher percentage DPPH scavenging by the pink I. batatas (39.18±0.01, 43.65±0.01, 54.19±0.01, 57.24±0.01) when compared to the nutraceutical (37.46±0.01, 41.90±0.01, 51.62±0.01, 55.1 5±0.01) at all the sample concentrations except at 0.6mg/ml where the value for neutraceutical was 45.20±0.01 and pink I. batatas was 43.93±0.01. For the white I. batatas, the percentage scavenging activity was (49.34±0.01), significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 0.6 mg/ml and significantly (p < 0.05) lower at 0.4 mg/ml when compared to the standard nutraceutical. This implies that the pink and white I. batatas which are naturally abundant in the locality could be effectively harnessed for the purpose of antioxidant activity in tackling diseases that are caused or exacerbated by free radicals in the system.

Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposition activity of the n-hexane extracts of I. batatas

As shown in table 4, the hydrogen peroxide decomposing activity of the pink I. batatas (57.65±0.01, 57.63±0.01, 56.18±0.01, 55.54±0.01, 54.66±0.01) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher at all the test concentrations when compared to the standard nutraceutical (56.17±0.01, 55.36±0.01, 55.35±0.01, 53.62±0.02, 50.0.3±0.01). Vitamin C which is an already known antioxidant expectedly showed the highest Hydrogen peroxide decomposing activity (99.33±0.01, 98.57±0.01, 98.17±0.01, 98.27±0.01, 96.42±0.02) than both the nutraceutical and the I. batatas samples. The white and pink I. batatas showed a higher Hydrogen peroxide decomposing activity than the nutraceutical at 0.4mg/ml and 1.0mg/ml sample concentrations. Other researchers have also established that vitamin C is a potent antioxidant, having the ability to neutralize and cushion the devastating effect of reactive oxygen species on cells, a finding confirmed by this study. The outcome of this study also imply that the white and pink I. batatas can be used to prevent or treat diseases caused by over accumulation of Hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen specie that has damaging effect on cells

The 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity of Nutraceutical and I. batatas (white and pink)

Table 5 shows the percentage inhibition of the activity of the radical compound, ABTS. At 0.2 mg/ml, both the white (75.19±0.01) and pink (77.45±0.01) I. batatas were observed to be significantly (p < 0.05) higher when compared to the nutraceutical. The result was the same at 0.4 mg/ml and at 0.6 mg/ml, the value was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the white (73.56±0.01) I. batatas and significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the pink (76.73±0.01) I. batatas when compared to the nutraceutical (75.46±0.01). At 0.8 mg/ml and at 1.0 mg/ml, the values were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the white I. batatas (71.94±0.03) compared to the nutraceutical (74.28±0.01) and non-significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the pink (74.64±0.01) I. batatas when compared to the nutraceutical (74.28±0.01). The results indicate that the white and pink I. batatas could effectively slow down the ravaging effect of free radicals and so could alternatively be used in place of the natural nutraceutical.

CONCLUSION

The results of this research showed that the pink and white I. batatas extract contained flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, saponins and phenol and the pink I. batatas possess the highest free radical scavenging and inhibiting properties and Hydrogen peroxide inhibiting activity, followed by the white I. batatas, than the standard nutraceutical, indicating that they have the potential for use as natural food supplements and could serve as alternative to synthetic nutraceutical supplements. However, there is need to quantify the phytochemical components in further research.

Table 1: Qualitative phytochemical Composition of n-Hexane extract of l. batatas

Phytochemical

White I. batatas

Pink l. batatas

Flavonoids

+

+

Alkaloids

+

+

Tannins

+

+

Terpenoids

+

+

Steroids

+

+

Saponins

+

+

Phenols

+

+

Keys (+) Present (-) Absent

Table 2: Vitamins composition of the n-hexane extract of white and pink I. batatas

Vitamins

Nutraceutical

white I. batata

pink I. batata

Vitamin C (mg/ml)

11.81±8.04c

15.14±0.18i

15.48±2.94o

Vitamin B1 (mg/dl)

28.15±0.32d

24.63±1.93j

26.53±0.88p

Vitamin B2 (mg/dl)

1.16±0.02e

1.15±0.02k

1.30±0.26q

TAC (mg/dl)

1.76±0.01f

1.53±0.02l

1.55±0.06r

Results are presented as Mean ± standard deviations

Mean values with different superscripts across the rows are significantly different at P<0.05, (n = 4)

Table 3: DPPH radical scavenging activity of n-haxane extract of white and pink I. batatas

Sample Concentration (mg/ml)

Vit.C (standard)


Nutraceutical


white I. batata


pink I. batata


0.2

71.01±0.01a

37.46±0.01b

36.27±0.01b

39.18±0.01b

0.4

72.80±0.0c

41.90±0.01d

38.71±0.01e

43.65±0.01d

0.6

74.39±0.01e

45.20±0.01f

49.34±0.01g

43.93±0.01f

0.8

74.96±0.01g

51.62±0.01h

53.59±0.01h

54.19±0.01h

1.0

76.22±0.02i

55.1 5±0.01j

54.63±0.01j

57.24±0.01j

Results are presented as Mean ± standard deviations

Mean values with different superscripts across the row are significantly different at P<0.05, (n = 4)

Table 4: Hydrogen peroxide decomposition activity of the n-hexane extract of I. batatas

Sample Concentration (mg/ml)

Vit.C (standard)

Nutraceutical

white I. batata

pink I. batata

0.2

99.33±0.01a

56.17±0.01b

55.36±0.01b

57.65±0.01b

0.4

98.57±0.01c

55.36±0.01d

55.59±0.02d

57.63±0.01d

0.6

98.17±0.01e

55.35±0.01e

54.77±0.01c

56.18±0.01e

0.8

98.27±0.01f

53.62±0.02g

52.67±0.01g

55.54±0.01g

1.0

96.42±0.02h

50.0.3±0.01i

51.24±0.01i

54.66±0.01i

Results are presented as Mean ± standard deviations (n = 4)

Mean values with different superscripts in the same row are significantly different at P<0.05,

Table 5: The 2,2’-Azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity of white and pink I. batatas Nutraceutical

Sample Concentration (mg/ml)

Vit.C (standard)

Nutraceutical

white I. batata

pink I. batata

0.2

98.41±0.01z

74.17±0.01n

75.19±0.01a

77.45±0.01b

0.4

98.86±0.01y

74.36±0.01m

75.66±0.02c

75.22±0.01c

0.6

98.55±0.01x

75.46±0.01o

73.56±0.01c

76.73±0.01d

0.8

98.81±0.01w

74.28±0.01f

71.94±0.03e

74.64±0.01f

1.0

97.56±0.02@

72.10±0.01h

69.36±0.01g

72.37±0.01h

Results are presented as Mean ± standard deviations

Mean values with different superscripts in the across the rows are significantly different at P < 0.05 (n = 4)

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