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Go Back       International Academic Journal of Nutrition & Food Sciences | IAR J Nut Fd. Sci ; 2021; 2(1): | Volume:2 Issue:1 ( Feb. 10, 2021 ) : 15-21
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjnfs2021.v02i01.003       Download PDF       HTML       XML




Proximate and Acceptability of Biscuit Produced From A Blend of Cocoyam, Plantain and Wheat Flour

Article History

Received: 15.01.2021Revision: 22. 01.2021, Accepted: 05. 02.2021, Published: 10. 02.2021

Author Details

Osei-Agyeman Millicent1, Jerry Worlanyo Ohene-Asah2 and Brenyah Florence3

Authors Affiliations

1Tutor, St. Monica’s College of Education, Box 250, Mampong Ashanti –Ghana

2Tutor, Abetifi Presbyterian College of Education, P. O. Box 19, Abetifi-Kwahu, Ghana

3Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi-Ghana

Abstract: The study was undertaken to produce an acceptable biscuits from cocoyam, Plantain and wheat flour blends based on a ratio: 100:0:0, 60:25:15 and 50:30:20. The proximate results of the biscuits produced indicated an increasing level of moisture, 5.56-8.70%, ash, 1.35-2.17%, fat, 43.8-43.90%, protein, 43.80-45.73% and carbohydrate, 36.3-43.21%. Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey Test was used to determine the significant difference among the various samples in duplicates. The study recorded a significant (p<0.05) difference between all composite samples and the control. It was found out that biscuit sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) was accepted by the panelists.

Keywords: Cocoyam, plantain, wheat flour, composite flour, proximate composition, biscuit.

Introduction

Biscuits are one of the sweet food items consumed in Ghana, particularly, among school children. They are prepared to eat, helpful and economical food items, containing digestive and dietary fibre that contribute greatly to the body (Kulkarni, 1997). The essential ingredients required for the preparation of biscuits are wheat flour, fat, sugar and water. Other ingredients can be added to give an ideal sensory quality. Wheat flour has been the main ingredients used in the production of biscuits and other bakery products.

The utilization of wheat flour for pastry making makes the product costly and excessively expensive to poor people. Accordingly, composite flours for biscuit and other pastry products can be made from our indigenous crops to decrease the cost of biscuits and other baked products. Akobundu et al., (1997) believed that before any raw materials can be used in composite flour blends, the materials should be promptly accessible and should contain some essential nutrients required by the body. FAO (1995) indicated that composite flours produced from oats and vegetables have the benefit of improving overall nutrition. Likewise, Chinma, & Gernah, (2007) noticed that composite flours from vegetables and tubers have high protein substance and high caloric worth.

Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium L.) is an imperative food crop in the tropical and subtropical regions. The cormels and leaves are cooked and eaten as food by the Ghanaian community. Cocoyam contains enough edible starch, great quality protein, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin (Lewu et al., 2009). Again, Owusu-Darko et al., (2014) stated that with suitable handling techniques, cocoyam could be a rich wellspring of starch for food and mechanical applications. The use of cocoyam (particularly Xanthosoma spp) is thwarted by the high calcium oxalate content which influences its tastefulness, presents corrosiveness and a severe rigid taste (Owusu-Darko et al., 2014).

Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) is an herbaceous plant of the class Musa. Plantain is a significant staple food in Ghana and West Africa. It is a fundamental food crop and modest source of energy in Ghana and other sub-tropical countries (Faturoti et al., 2016; Faturoti et al., 2017). A study by (Ogechi et al., 1988; Okeke et al., 2008; Odenigbo et al., 2012) on food utilization in Nigeria distinguished plantain among the main starchy food. Plantain is abundant in starch, dietary fiber, irons, nutrients, and minerals. Plantain contains limited quantity of serotonin which can expand the supply routes and improve blood circulation. Plantain is likewise a decent source of Iron, and β – Carotene (vitamin A) as announced by (Ogazi, 1988). It contains 32% sugar, 1% protein, 0.02, fat, 60% water, a few nutrients and mineral components Kure et al., 1998).

Bearing in mind the health and nutritional benefits of plantain and its incorporation as composite blend in the preparation of biscuits will help in augmenting the nutritional and health status of consumers, lessen total dependence on wheat flour and frequency of certain chronic non-communicable disease. The opportunity of making bakery products from wheat/plantain composite flour has been evaluated (Bamidele et al., 1990; Mepba et al., 2007; Idoko, & Nwajiaku 2013). The aim of the study was to produce an acceptable biscuit from a blend of cocoyam, plantain and wheat flour.

Materials and Methods

Plantain and cocoyam were procured from the Kumasi Central Market, in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Other ingredients such as wheat flour, sugar, margarine and flavouring agents were also purchased from the Tafo Market in the same region.

Production of cocoyam flour

Cocoyam was thoroughly washed, peeled, sliced to about 5 mm thickness and dried in an oven using methods described by 18]. The slices were oven dried at 60oC for 24 hours. The dried chips were milled using a Philip’s electronic blender and sieved (300-400 μm). The sifted flour was sealed in polythene bags (100 μm) until needed for baking.

Plantain flour processing

The plantain flour was prepared using the method of Mepba et al., 2007 with minor modification. Plantain fingers were washed to remove adhering soil particles, peeled, cut into thin slices of about 2-cm thick and dried in an oven at 60°C for 24 hours. The dried plantain slices were milled into flour using Hammer mill. Flour obtained was sifted through a 250-μm aperture sieve. The flour was packed and sealed in polyethylene bags until ready for use.

Sample Formulation

Three different samples of biscuits were produced and coded as A, B, and C. The blends of cocoyam, plantain and whole wheat flour were prepared in the ratio 100:0:0, 60:25:15 and 50:30: 20. The flours were carefully combined to obtain a uniform mixture. The samples were stored at the temperature 30 ± 2°C) in air tight containers and labeled until needed for biscuit production. The combination of both plantain and cocoyam flours were prepared in different formulations as presented in Table 1.

Table 1: ingredients formulation

INGREDIENTS

A

B

C

Wheat flour (g)

100

60

50

Cocoyam flour (g)

0

25

30

Plantain flour(g)

0

15

20

Margarine (g)

50

50

50

Salt (g)

Sugar (g)

50

50

50

Water (ml)

150

150

150

Product A (100% wheat flour), Product B (60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour), Product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour)

Production of Biscuits

Biscuits were produced from the three formulations using the method of (Falade & Olugbuyi, 2010). Sugar and margarine were creamed together. Wheat-cocoyam-plantain flour and salt were sifted and added to creamed mixture. It was then combined to form soft dough. The dough was mixed with the hand in a mixing bowl for 5 min until uniform smooth dough was obtained. The dough was slightly kneaded on a flat board sprinkled with flour to a uniform thickness using a wooden rolling pin. Circular biscuits were cut using a circular biscuit-cuter of diameter 4 cm, placed on a greased baking tray and kept at ambient temperature for 30 minutes to allow biscuit to rest. The samples were baked at once in an oven at a temperature of 200 ºC for 20 minutes until a very light brown colour was formed. Biscuits were removed from the oven and cooled. Samples used for sensory evaluation was used immediately after cooling while other samples were packed in air tight polyethylene bags (100 μm) and stored (24 hours) at ambient temperature (25 ± 2 ºC) until analysis.

Proximate composition of wheat-cocoyam-plantain biscuit

Proximate analysis of samples was determined according to AOAC (2012). The samples were analysed for moisture content, ash, protein, fat, crude fibre.

Moisture content and total solids: Oven Drying Method

Five grams (5g) of the sample was transferred to the previously dried and weighed dish. The Dish was placed in an oven and thermostatically controlled at 105 degrees for 5 hours. Dish was removed and placed in a desiccator to cool to room temperature and weighed. It was then dried again for 30 minutes, cooled down again and weighed. Drying, cooling and weighing were repeated until a constant weight was reached. (Alternatively, sample could be dried in a thermostatically controlled oven for at least 8 hours where a constant weight would be achieved). The determinations were duplicated and the average found (AOAC 2005).

Calculations

% Moisture (wt/wt) = wt2O in sample ×100

Wt of wet sample

% Moisture (wt/wt) = wt of wet sample-wtof dry sample ×100

Wt of wet sample

% Total solids (wt/wt) = wt of dried sample ×100

Wt of wet sample

Where wt= Weight of sample/spread

Ash content

5g sample was weighed into a tarred crucible and was pre-dried. Crucibles were placed in cool muffle furnace using tongs, gloves and protective eyewear. The crucibles Ignited for 2 hours at about 600 degrees Celsius. Muffle furnace was turned off and opened when temperature dropped to at least 250 degrees preferably lower. The door was carefully opened to avoid losing ash that may be fluffy. Safety tongs was used to transfer crucibles to a desiccator with a porcelain plate and desiccant. Desiccator was closed and allowed crucibles to cool prior to weighing.

Calculations

%Ash = wt of ash ×100

Wt of sample

%Ash = (wt of crucible+ ash) – wt of empty crucible ×100

(Wt of crucible+ sample) – Wt of empty crucible

Where wt= Weight of sample/spread

Fat content: soxhlet extraction

Previously dried (air oven at 100°C) 250 ml round bottom flask was weighed accurately. 5.0g of dried sample to 22 ×80mm paper thimble or a folded filter paper was weighed. A small of cotton or glass wool was placed into the thimble to prevent loss of the sample. 150ml of petroleum spirit B.P 40-60°C was added to the round bottom flask and assembled the apparatus. A condenser was connected to the soxhlet extractor and reflux for 4 - 6 hours on the heating mantle. After extraction, thimble was removed and recovered solvent by distillation. The flask and fat/oil was heated in an oven at about 103°C to evaporate the solvent. The flask and contents were cooled to room temperature in a desiccator. The flask was weighed to determine weight of fat/oil collected.

% Fat (dry basis) = fat/oil collected × 100

Weight of sample

% Fat (dry basis) = (wt of flask + oil) – wt. of flask × 100

Weight of sample

Crude fibre determination

Two grams (2g) of the sample from crude fat determination was weighed into a 750ml Erlenmeyer flask. Two hundred milliliters (200ml) of 1.25% H2SO4 was added and immediately flask was set on hot plate and connected to the condenser. The contents were boiled within 1 minute of contact with solution. At the end of 30 minutes, flask was removed and immediately filtered through linen cloth in funnel and washed with a large volume of water. Filtrate (containing sample from acid hydrolysis) was washed and returned into the flask with 200ml 1.25% NaOH solutions. Flask was connected to the condenser and was boiled for exactly 30 minutes. It was then filtered through Fischer’s crucible and washed thoroughly with water and added 15ml 96% alcohol. Crucible and contents was dried for 2 hour at 105 °C and cooled in desiccator and it was weighed. Crucible was ignited in a furnace for 30 minutes and after that it was cooled and reweighed.

% Crude fibre = weight of crude fibre × 100

Weight of sample

% Crude fibre = wt of crucible + sample (before – after) ashing × 100

Weight of sample

Where wt= Weight of sample/spread

Protein Determination

Digestion Method

Two grams (2g) of sample and a half of selenium –based catalyst tablets and a few anti-bumping agents were added to the digestion flask. Twenty five milliliters (25ml) of concentrated H2SO4 was added and the flask was shaken for the entire sample to become thoroughly wet. Flask was placed on digestion burner and heated slowly until boiling ceased and the resulting solution was clear. The sample was then cooled to room temperature and digested sample solution was transferred into a 100ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark.

Distillation Method

To flush out the apparatus before use, distilled water was boiled in a steam generator of the distillation apparatus with the connections arranged to circulate through the condenser, for at least 10 minutes. The receiving flask was lowered and continued to heat for 30 seconds in order to carry over all liquid in the condenser. 25 ml of 2% boric acid was pipetted into 250ml conical flask and 2 drops of mixed indicator added. The conical flask and its contents was placed under the condenser in such a position that the tip of the condenser is completely immersed in solution. 10ml of the digested sample solution was measured into the decomposition flask of the Kejdahl unit, fixed it and add excess of 40% NaOH (about 15-20ml) to it. The ammonia produced was distilled into the collection flask with the condenser tip immersed in the receiving flask till a volume of about 150ml– 200ml is collected. Before distilling another sample and on completion of all distillations, the apparatus was flushed as in step 1 above. Steam was allowed to pass only until 5ml of the distillate is obtained.

Titration Method

The Distillate with 0.1N HCL solution was titrated. The acid was added until the solution became colourless. Any additional acid added made the two solutions become pink. The nitrogen content was determined in duplicate, and a blank determination was run using the same amount of all reagents as used for the sample. The blank was meant to correct for traces of nitrogen in the reagents and included digestion as well as distillation methods.

Calculation:

% Total nitrogen = 100 × (Va-Vb) × NA× 0.01401× 100

W× 10

Where:

Va- volume in ml of standard acid used in titration

Vb- volume in ml of standard acid used in blank

NA- normality of acid

W- Weight of sample taken

Carbohydrate content

The calculation of available carbohydrate (nitrogen-free extract-NFE) was made after completing the analysis for ash, crude fibre, ether extract and crude protein. The calculation was made by adding the percentage values on dry matter basis of these analysed contents and subtracting them from 100%.

Calculation:

Carbohydrate (%) = % crude fibre + % NFE

OR

Carbohydrate (%) =100 - (% moisture +% fat +% protein +% ash)

ӿ. Calculation for dry basis = (100-% moisture) × wet basis

100

Sensory Analysis

The sensory evaluation was done on three different samples: Sample A, B, and C. Fifty (50) consumers were randomly selected for the sensory. Consumers’ were asked to evaluate the three coded samples on a 9-point hedonic scale with 1= like extremely, 2= like very much 3= like moderate, 4=like slightly, 5= Neither like nor dislike 6=dislike slightly, 7=dislike moderately, 8=dislike very much, 9=dislike extremely very much in an experiment for sensory evaluation on the parameters (colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall acceptability).

Statistical Analysis

Data were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey Test was used to determine the significant difference among the various samples in duplicates. Data were analyzed using the software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.00 (SPSS inc., Chicago), IL, USA at the 0.05 level of significance.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 2: Proximate analysis of wheat-cocoyam-plantain composite biscuit

Samples

Moisture %

Ash%

Fat%

Protein%

Carbohydrate%

A

5.56±0.14

1.35±0.028

43.8±0.19

43.80±0.19

43.21±0.28

B

6.72±0.17

1.68±0.045

45.02±0.36

43.90±0.36

41.48±0.55

C

8.70±0.21

2.17±0.089

43.90±0.20

45.73±0.20

36.3±0.09

Product A (100% wheat flour), Product B (60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour), Product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour)

Proximate compositions of the various biscuits samples were undertaken. From the proximate results, it was realized that, the moisture content ranged from 5.10-6.23 with the composite sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) having the highest moisture content as compared to control sample (100% wheat flour) with the least moisture content of 5.56±0.14. It was also detected that the moisture content of the biscuit increased as more of the composite flour was added. This could be attributed to the wet nature of both the cocoyam and plantain flours and in spite of this could lessen the shelf life of the biscuit. Statistical analysis of the samples showed significant (p<0.05) among the samples. The results were similar to that produced by Ihekoronye (1999) from whole wheat flour and full fat soya bean flour (ranged from 7.24-9.85%).

The ash content ranged from 1.68±0.045 to 2.17±0.089 with sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) having the highest ash content while the least was the control sample (1.35±0.028). From the results, there was a significant (p<0.05) difference between the composite biscuit samples and the control. The ash contents of all samples were lower than what was recorded by Ndie et al., (2010); they reported ash contents of 2.20 to 2.57%.

It was observed that the fat content ranged from 43.8±0.19 to 45.02±0.36 with the composite sample B(60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour) having the highest fat content of 45.02±0.36 whilst the least was the control sample (43.8±0.19). The fat content for the three sample formulations were significantly different (p < 0.05) from each other. This result is similar to Abayomi et al., (2013) who reported a level of 47.7% in African walnut as a substitute to wheat flour in cookies preparation.

The crude protein content of the various biscuit samples ranged from 43.80±0.19 to 45.73±0.20 with sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) having the highest protein content and the least was the control sample (100% wheat flour). The crude protein content of the three formulations was significantly different (p>0.05) from each other. It was observed that the protein content increased as the proportion of the composite flour also increased as reported in literature by Ndife et al., (2014) and Abayomi et al., (2013). Ndife et al., (2014) reported a lesser protein content (17.65-21.65%) for their biscuits produced from sweet potato flour and soybean flour. Their biscuits had sweet potato flour substituted up to 30% with soybean flour.

The carbohydrate content ranged from 36.3±0.09 to 43.21±0.28 with the control sample (100% wheat flour) having the highest carbohydrate content followed by the composite sample B (60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour) and the least was Product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour). The study reported a significant (p<0.05) differences in the carbohydrate of all samples. The high carbohydrate content of the control sample suggests a high energy content of the biscuits and high-energy foods tend to have a protective effect in the optimal utilization of other nutrients (Wardlaw & Kessel 2002).

Table 3: The sensory analysis of the biscuit

Samples

Colour

Texture

Aroma

Taste

Level of acceptability

A

6.23±0.80

4.10±0.93

4.3±0.80

3.10±0.70

5.10±0.70

B

5.32±0.70

3.20±0.80

4.01±0.10

5.20±0.60

4.20±0.70

C

5.10±0.80

4.9±80

5.10±0.80

6.50±0.90

5.40±0.90

LSD

0.23

0.342

0.021

1.481

0.061

Product A (100% wheat flour), Product B (60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour), Product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour)

Colour generally refers to the appearance of the product. It is one the sensory attributes consumers explore in purchasing new products due to it aesthetic appeal. The panelists rated the colour of the various biscuits from 5.10 to 6.23. They were thus rated as like slightly to like very much. From the hedonic scale, product A (100% wheat flour), was rated like extremely whiles the rest was rated like very much.

The results of sample A (100% Wheat flour) was significantly (p>0.05) different from the rest of the products. These findings are similar to work of (Zoulias et al., 2000) who concluded that colour is vital quality trait of biscuit. Colour is produced through a process of visual perception in the eyes resulting from the stimulation of the retina by light (wavelengths between 380 and 760 nm). Colour is the foremost and most important sensory attribute that influences consumer preference and acceptance for any product especially in food products (Zoulias et al., 2000).

The texture of the biscuit samples was rated as ‘like slightly’ to ‘like very much’. Panelists rated the texture of the various biscuits products from 3.20 to 4.9, with product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) having the highest mean score and product B (60% wheat flour, 25% cocoyam flour, 15% plantain flour) recorded the least mean score of 3.20. All biscuit samples recorded a significant (p<0.05) different from each other.

Aroma influences the consumers’ acceptance of the baked products. The composite biscuit sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) recorded the highest mean score of 5.10 that is “liked extremely”, followed by sample A with a score of 4.30 and Sample B had the lowest mean score rating according to the respondents with the score of approximately 4.01. It was observed from the result that there was a significant (p>0.05) difference between the composite samples and the control as 30% of the cocoyam and 20% plantain flour was incorporated.

The taste of the different biscuit samples ranged from 3.10±0.70 to 6.50±0.90. The products were thus rated as being like slightly to like very much. Product C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) was liked very much by the panel when compared to the other samples. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in taste among the various samples. This could be as a result of variation among the ingredients used in the preparation of the biscuits. Taste is a chemical sense stimulated by the taste receptors upon interaction with taste stimuli on the tongue. In general, humans can distinguish between five to six basic tastes –sweet, sour, bitter, umami, fatty, and salty. The quality of the biscuit (Aroma, colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability) had influence the overall acceptability of the biscuit. There was a significant (p<0.05) difference between all fortified samples and the control sample. Sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) had the highest mean score (5.40) followed by sample A (100% wheat flour). With a mean score of (5.10) that is “liked very much. Sample C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) was accepted by the panel.

Conclusion

The result from the study shows that cocoyam and plantain flour can be used to produce an acceptable biscuit without any effects on the nutritional and sensory attributes of the products. Furthermore, cocoyam and plantain flour can be used to partially replace wheat flour up to 30% and 20% level in production of biscuit. Biscuit made with C (50% wheat flour, 30% cocoyam flour, 20% plantain flour) substitutions was accepted by the respondents.

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