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Go Back       IAR Journal of Agriculture Research and Life Sciences | IAR J Agri Res Life Sci, 2(5), | Volume:2 Issue:5 ( Oct. 31, 2021 ) : 31-36.
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjals.2021.v02i05.005       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Firewood Users in Indonesia: Study of Socio Economic Factors with LSDV Approach


Article History

Received: 30.09. 2021 Revision: 10.10.2021 Accepted: 20. 10.2021 Published: 31.10.2021

Author Details

Agustono, Rhina Uchyani, Joko Sutrisno, Minar Ferichani and Refa’ul Khairiyah

Authors Affiliations

Departemen Agribisnis Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Sebelas Maret


Abstract: In Indonesia. Firewood is the second source of energy after gas or LPG, which is used for cooking. The use of firewood for cooking has both positive and negative impacts. Positive impact in the form of contribution to the welfare of society in the form of energy availability. The negative impacts are (1) a decrease in health and (2) a decrease in environmental quality. In this regard, it is important to know the factors that influence the use of firewood. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on the percentage of firewood users in Indonesia. Many studies have been conducted by researchers using primary data, but very few have used secondary data. This study uses secondary data in the form of panel data. Panel data is a combination of time series and cross sectional data. The analysis tool is LSDV. The result is that the percentage of illiteracy has a positive effect on the percentage of firewood users with a regression coefficient of 0.199. The percentage of users of gas or LPG/elpiji has a negative effect on the percentage of users of firewood, with a regression coefficient of -0.481. Per capita income affects the percentage of firewood users with a regression coefficient of -0.138.


Keywords: firewood, LSDV, socioeconomic factors, panel data.

INTRODUCTION

Wood is the oldest source of energy (FAO, 2010). Firewood is a renewable energy source used for cooking by communities in Indonesia. Based on the BPS report (2017) that in Indonesia there are 6 types of fuel used by the community for cooking as presented in Figure 1.


Figure Image is Available in PDF Format


Source: BPS 2017


Information:

  • Electric

  • Gas / LPG

  • Kerosene

  • Charcoal/Briquettes

  • Wood

  • Others


Figure 1 shows that the use of firewood for cooking ranks second after gas or LPG. This shows that the dependence of the Indonesian people on firewood is still high. The use of firewood has an important role in the global economy and the well-being of society: for the third world as a major source of energy for cooking and heating (Barlizzi, 2017). Mislimshoefa., et al., (2014) stated that firewood is the main energy source, especially in mountainous areas in developing countries. Access to firewood is essential for rural life in developing countries. The use of firewood for cooking has both positive and negative impacts. The positive impact is that renewable energy available at low prices, which contributes to the welfare of the community. The negative impacts are related to health and the environment. Zidago and Wang (2016) stated that burning wood or residue from agricultural products will produce smoke with various types of pollutants. Some of these pollutants are known to be carcinogens. More than 1.5 million people die each year from acute respiratory infections caused by fumes from cooking in indoor kitchens with fire. Regarding the environment, RWEDP reports that the use of firewood can cause emissions in the form of carbon monoxide, methane and nitrogen oxides (WGBIS.CES.iisc.ernet.in.). This is a gas that contributes to the green house effect.


The negative impact of using firewood for cooking is large and fatal, so reducing the use of firewood is a very important action. However, the problem is what socio-economic factors can be used as an instrument to reduce firewood users in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio-economic factors on the percentage of firewood users in Indonesia. The urgency of this research is that the maintenance of health and the environment is a very important aspect to always be considered in the use of energy resources. In this regard, the reduction or replacement of firewood with clean energy must be prioritized.


METHODOLOGY

The model used is the fixed effect least square dummy variable (LSDV) model, which allows heterogeneity between subjects by giving the entity its own intercept value (Gujarati and Porter. 2015). The advantages of LSDV can be used to determine individual and time effects (Ekananda. 2016). The general models are:


Qit=c+α1D1t2D2t3D3t4D4t 1X1t2X2t3X3t3X4t+Ɛit


Where:

Qit : Percentage of firewood users (%)

X1t : Household member (person)

X2t : Illiteracy percentage (%)

X3t : Percentage of gas or LPG users (%)

X4t : Income per capita (Rp)

i : Province in Indonesia

t : Year 2013-2016

Ɛ : Error

D1 : 1=Year 2013. 0= other

D2 : 1=Year 2014. 0= other

D3 : 1=Year 2015. 0= other

D4 : 1=Year 2016. 0= other


The next step is the regression process on all variables. Then the results are tested whether they satisfy the classical assumptions or not. If not, the next step removes the variables, especially those that have no effect, and performs the regression process again. The results were retested to obtain a model that satisfies the classical assumptions. A model that satisfies the classical assumptions is a good model. Classical assumption test includes normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, and autocorrelation.


The data used is panel data. Panel data is a combination of time series data for 4 years 2013-2016 and cross-sectional data covering 36 regions in Indonesia obtained from BPS Indonesia. The latest data used is data in 2016 because the latest data available at BPS is data in 2016.

RESULTS

The selection of the model in this study includes several stages. The initial stage of all variables is regressed, the result is the time variable and the number of household members have no effect and autocorrelation occurs. The second step, removing the time variable. The regression results show that there is still one variable that has no effect, and there is still autocorrelation. The third stage of regression is done by excluding household member variables. The result is that all variables included in the model are influential and there is no autocorrelation. In the third stage, the resulting model is a good model. Classical assumption test results: Normality by being tested with P-Pplots, the residuals are spread close to the diagonal line. This shows that the residue is normally distributed. Heteroscedasticity testing is by regressing variables with residuals, and the results of all variables are not significant. This shows that heteroscedasticity does not occur. Autocorrelation test by testing the value of DW. The results of the analysis of the DW value of 2.202, turned out to be located between 1.774 < DW < 2.226. In conclusion, there is no autocorrelation. Multicollinearity test by looking at the VIF value. It turns out that the value of VIF <10, means that there is no multicollinearity. The model has an R2 value of 0.872, meaning that this model is able to explain the variation of the percentage of firewood use by 87.2%. The F test with 5% showed an effect, meaning that the variables included in the model together had an effect on the percentage of firewood users in Indonesia. In general, the conclusion is that this model can be classified as a good model.


Descriptions related to the average, standard deviation and volatility of the variables in the selected model. The variables are the percentage of firewood users, the percentage of illiteracy, the percentage of gas/elpiji users and per capita income are presented in Figure 2 and Table 1.


Figure Image is Available in PDF Format


Figure 2 provides an understanding that there are variations between time and between places from the variables of the percentage of firewood users, percentage of illiteracy, percentage of gas users and per capita income. The variation is shown by the ups and downs of the graph in Figure 2 and the value of the coefficient of variation (CV) which describes the volatility of the variable. The variable that has the greatest volatility is the percentage of illiteracy as shown in Table 2 with a CV value of 95%. Table 2 shows the results of regression analysis of the independent variable and dependent variable.


Table 1: Volatility of Variable Percentage of Firewood Users, Percentage of Illiteracy, Percentage of Gas/Elpiji Users and Per Capita Income in Indonesia from 2013-2016

Variable

Average (%)

Standard Deviation

CV

Percentage of firewood users

32.49

18.44

0.56

Percentage of illiteracy

16.95

16.16

0.95

Percentage of GAS/elpiji users

51.27

28.03

0.54

Income per capita

43.02

35.04

0.81

Source: Secondary Data Analysis

Table 2: Regression Coefficient Values for the Percentage of Illiteracy Rates, the Percentage of Gas/Elpiji Users and Per Capita Income in Indonesia from 2013-2016

Variable

Unstandardized

Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

Significant

B

Std. error

beta


sig

(Constant)

59.72

1.59



0.00

Percentage of illiteracy

0.19

0.03

0.17


0.00

Percentage of GAS/elpiji users

0.48

0.02

0.73


0.00

Income per capita

0.13

0.01

0.26


0.00


Table 2 shows the three variables, namely the percentage of illiteracy, the percentage of gas users and per capita income with =5% having an effect on the percentage of firewood users.


DISCUSSION

Table 1 shows the average percentage of firewood users in Indonesia during the period 2013-2016 of 32.49%, meaning that around 32.49% of the population in Indonesia still uses firewood for cooking activities. The highest was in East Nusa Tenggara at 80.69% in 2013, and the lowest was in the Bangka Belitung Islands at 0.05% in 2014. The average illiteracy percentage variable was 16.96%, the highest was 89.57 in North Maluku in 2013 and the lowest was 0.68 in East Kalimantan in 2016. The average percentage of gas users was 51.27%, the highest was at 91.55% in Central Kalimantan in 2014 and the lowest was 0.27 in Bali in 2016. The average per capita income was IDR 43.02 million, the highest was IDR 210,075 million in the Bangka Belitung Islands in 2015 and the lowest was IDR 16,093 million in Bali in 2016.


Consumption of firewood is influenced by several factors, according to Malla and Timilsina (2014) grouped into 3 namely (1) socio-economic factors such as education income, household members; (2) behavioral and cultural factors such as household preferences, practicality, appetite, cultural beliefs and (3) external factors such as fuel availability, physical environment and government policies. Furthermore, Malla and Timilsina (2014) grouped based on the type of technology for cooking into three, namely (1) traditional such as firewood, agricultural waste and livestock manure; (2) intermediates such as: charcoal wood pellets, briquettes, lignite, coal and kerosene and (3) modern ones such as LPG, electricity, solar energy, biogas, natural gas, gel fuel, oil, plants and dimethyl ether. Thus, the use of firewood as energy for cooking is included in the traditional criteria.


Uhunamure et al., (2017) stated that people prefer firewood because the price is cheap and easy to obtain, which is the reason people use firewood.


People obtain firewood in two ways, namely harvesting or buying. The composition is buying under 20% and harvesting more than 80%. Mislimshoefa., et al., (2014) in Tajikistan stated that firewood was obtained from (1) own plantations, (2) State forests, (3) mountain roads and fields, (4) community forests, (5) community forests and (6) sellers, firewood.


Dwiprabowo (2010) stated that the source of firewood comes from (1) own gardens, (2) forest areas, (3) plantations and (4) wood industry waste scattered in rural areas. Figure 3 shows an example of a picture of firewood obtained from one's own garden. This firewood is a twig from the teak tree, which is where the teak tree trunk is sold. Firewood is used for cooking in the kitchen.


Figure Image is Available in PDF Format


Figure 3: Firewood in Own Garden Ready to be Brought Home


Astana (2012) stated that the consumption of firewood in Banjarnegara, Sukabumi and Lebak ranged from 165-256 kg/month/household. Based on data on firewood consumption and energy conversion figures in Table 2, household energy needs for cooking range from 2,640-4,096 MJ per month.


The use of firewood as energy for cooking has a negative impact, as stated by Langbein (2017) that smoke from cooking in the kitchen is one of the causes of premature infant mortality in the world. Cooking outside the kitchen will reduce 9% of respiratory diseases in children aged 0-4 years. Silwal (2015) stated the results of research in Indonesia that the lung capacity of individuals who cook with firewood is 9.4% lower than cooking using clean energy. The impact is greater on women and children than on men. Malla and Timilsina (2014) explained that several studies concluded that cooking using biomass that was burned indoors had a negative impact on health, especially for women and children. RWEDP reports that the use of firewood can cause emissions in the form of carbon monoxide, methane, and nitrogen oxides (WGBIS.CES.iisc.ernet.in.). This is a gas that contributes to the green house effect. Malla and Timilsina (2014) conclude that the results of the study show that burning biomass for cooking is a key source of black carbon emissions and will have a negative effect on the climate system.


Partially, the percentage of illiteracy has a positive effect on the percentage of firewood users, with a regression coefficient of 0.199 meaning that if there is a decrease in the percentage of illiteracy by 10%, it will reduce the percentage of firewood users by 1.99%. Illiteracy relates to a person's ability to read and write. This ability can capture information well. The good information obtained will affect the decisions chosen, which in turn will determine behavior.


The improvement in the percentage of illiteracy is to reduce the number of people who are still illiterate in an area. Reactivating the elderly population with education packages and for children to try to be willing to go to school and avoid dropouts. This is expected to have a positive impact in the form of awareness of the importance of replacing the use of firewood, given the negative impact of using firewood on health and the environment. This situation is expected to reduce the use of firewood. The results of research by Mislimshoefa., et al., (2014) in Tajikistan show that the level of education has a negative effect on the use of firewood, meaning that the higher the education, the lower the use of firewood. Esther (2019) states in Africa that education affects the use of firewood. Al Subaiee (2014) explained that in Saudi Arabia the lower, the tendency of education to use firewood for cooking and heating. The highest rank is those who do not have formal education. Sameny and Machete (2019) that the level of education is a driving factor for the use of firewood in Africa.


The percentage of gas/elpiji users has a negative effect on the percentage of firewood users, with a regression coefficient of -0.481. If the percentage of gas/elpiji users increases by 10%, it will decrease the percentage of firewood users by 4.81%. Thus, it can be said that firewood and gas are interchangeable energies. This is different from the results of research by Dwiprabowo (2010), on a micro level at the household level, firewood is used together with gas. In other words, gas and firewood are complementary energy sources. The results of this analysis indicate that the government's role is still very much needed in terms of policies to provide subsidized gas in order to reduce the number of users of firewood. The distribution of subsidized gas is prioritized in areas with a high number of fuel users. Table 2 also shows that the beta coefficient has the highest value, meaning that the variable percentage of gas/elpiji users is the most important variable compared to the other two variables in terms of its effect on the percentage of firewood users. This can be used as a key variable in reducing the percentage of firewood users, namely by increasing the number of gas/elpiji users. Zidago and Wang (2016) suggest the use of clean energy, namely gas, as an alternative to reduce smoke and pollutants.


The income per capita of the community affects the percentage of firewood users, with a regression coefficient of -0.138. This means that if per capita income increases by Rp. 10 million, it will reduce the percentage of firewood users by 1.38%. To reduce the use of firewood, steps that can be taken is to increase people's income. On a macro level, the government strives to continuously improve economic development through investment and technological innovation that will increase GDP. GDP increases, which in turn will increase people's per capita income. However, what is not forgotten is the distribution of income. Even distribution between regions and distribution between individuals is an important aspect. On a micro level, firewood which is usually used as a source of energy for cooking needs to be empowered into something more useful, for example made for household appliances. It can replace plastic or can reduce dependence on plastic. Waste from equipment made of wood is easily decomposed by nature compared to those made of plastic. Thus providing a double benefit of increasing income and at the same time improving health and the environment. Uhunamure et al., (2017) stated that energy consumption by households is expected to increase in line with economic growth and per capita income. Furthermore, related to firewood, Esther (2019) stated that income factors affect the use of firewood. Al Subaiee (2014) explained in Saudi Arabia that the level of income increases, the use of firewood for cooking decreases. Sameny and Machete (2019) that income is a driving factor for the use of firewood in Africa. Nlom and Karomov (2015) stated that in Cameron 70% of the poor depend on firewood as a source of energy for cooking. Astana (2012) states that income has a negative effect on firewood consumption.


CONCLUSION

The percentage of illiteracy has a positive effect on the percentage of firewood users with a regression coefficient of 0.199. The percentage of gas/elpiji users has a negative effect on the percentage of firewood users with a regression coefficient of -0.481. Per capita income affects the percentage of firewood users with a regression coefficient of -0.138.


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