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Go Back       IAR Journal of Agriculture Research and Life Sciences | IAR J Agri Res Life Sci, 2(5), | Volume:2 Issue:5 ( Oct. 10, 2021 ) : 27-30.
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjals.2021.v02i05.004       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Influence of Different Chemical on Vegetative Growth of Chironji (Buchanania Lanzan Spreng)”


Article History

Received: 10.09.2021 Revision: 20. 09.2021 Accepted: 30. 09.2021 Published: 10. 10.2021

Author Details

Mr. Lalge Pramod Mahadev1, Dr. Dipakkumar Bakaram Ahire*2 and Mr. Himanshu D. Patel3

Authors Affiliations

1M. Sc. (Horticulture) Student, College of Agriculture, Dhule Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, 424001, India

2Assistant Professor (Horticulture), College of Agriculture, Nandurbar Dist. Nandurbar, Maharashtra, 425412, India

3B. Sc. (Hons.) Agriculture Student, K. V. Patel, College of Agriculture, Shahada Dist. Nandurbar, Maharashtra, 425409, India


Abstract: The Chironji seeds (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.) were treated with Mechanical scarification (by hammering), Luke warm water (24 hrs.), GA3 @ 500, 750 & 1000 ppm (24 hrs.), H2SO4 @ 5 % (10 min.) and Control (Untreated). The maximum seedling height (10.27 cm), stem diameter (0.41 cm), number of leaves (13.40), leaf area (28.38 cm2), fresh shoot weight (6.76 g), fresh root weight (4.17 g), was recorded in mechanical scarification. However, the maximum shoot: root weight ratio (1.81) and maximum shoot: root length ratio (0.62) was recorded in GA3 @ 500 ppm and GA3 @ 1000 ppm respectively at 120 DAS.


Keywords: Chironji, Buchanania lanzan Spreng, germination, scarification, GA3, H2SO4.

INTRODUCTION

Chironji, also known as Char, Piyal or Achar belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. It is a tropical evergreen, underutilized nut fruit and is native to India. It has its own importance by having multipurpose uses. It plays an important role in lives of tribal people in southern and northern tropical dry deciduous forests in both medicinal and as income generating with fruit kernels for better livelihoods and tree capacity to withstand adverse climatic conditions. Fruit kernels are eaten raw or roasted and also used in making dessert, which is rich source of protein, fat, starch, vitamins and minerals and yields sweet oil, which can be used as substitute to olive and almond oil. The tree provides food, fuel, fodder, timber, lac and has medicinal properties.


Chironji is an almost evergreen, moderate sized tree, with straight, cylindrical trunk, up to 10-15 m height and tomentose branches. Bark is rough, dark grey or black, fissured into prominent squares, 1.25-1.75 cm thick, and is reddish inside. Its leaves are thickly coriaceous, broadly oblong with a rounded base. Flowering start in the month of December- January and is small greenish-white in colour. Fruits mature and ripen from April-May.


At present the plant is grouped as an underexploited and non-commercialized minor forest produce. Rapid deforestation, mishandling of trees during fruit collection and lack of care, this species depleted very fast from its natural habitat. In absence of conservation measures and commercial cultivation, the species will lead towards extinction in near future. In order to protect this species, there is an urgent need to develop a technology for easy multiplication and regeneration of chironji to popularize it on commercial basis. Though, the tree is generally propagated from seeds and it takes around 1 month to germinate. The main bottleneck is poor seed germination (10-15%) even if exposed to favorable conditions of germination owing to seed dormancy. It may be due to morphological factor such as hard, thick testa or due to incorrect storage or handling (secondary dormancy). Such seed may require special treatment like stratification, scarification, soaking in water, growth regulators etc., for overcoming dormancy


With this view and also to meet the local demand of quality planting material of chironji, the research works on “Influence of different chemical on vegetative growth of chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.)”.


MATERIAL AND MATHODS

The experiment was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Nandurbar, Tal: Nandurbar, District – Nandurbar (Maharashtra), India during July-October-2020. The experimental design was Randomized Block Design (RBD). Seven different treatments were imposed including control. Freshly matured seeds were collected from the forest area satpuda hills Dhadgaon tehsil dist. Nandurbar (Maharashtra). Healthy and uniform sized seeds were selected and used for the experiment. One hundred fifty seeds were used for each treatment which was replicated thrice. The treatment were T1-Mechanical scarification (Hammering), T2 -Luke warm water (24 hr.), T3 - GA3@ 500 ppm (24 hr.), T4 - GA3@ 750 ppm (24 hr.), T5 - GA3@ 1000 ppm (24 hr.), T6 - H2SO4@ 5% (10 min.) and T7 - Control (Untreated). Before sowing all seeds were dipped in respective chemicals for 24 hours except seeds treated with concentrated H2SO4 which were dipped for 10 minutes. Hard seed coats were broken down by hammering in seeds which were treated with mechanical scarification before sowing. Pre treated seeds were shade dried for 10 minutes and were sown in polyethylene bags (8’’x 6’’) containing soil, FYM and sand (1:1:1) ratio at 1 cm depth and were placed in flat beds at proper space under partial shade condition. Adequate irrigation was provided to seeds sown in polythene bags using hose pipe and maintained the proper moisture level. The bags were watered as and when required till final data were recorded. Observations on the vegetative parameters were recorded at 15 days interval for up to 120 DAS. The experimental data were subjected to the statistical analysis by using variance technique as described by Panse and Sukhatme (1967)


RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Germination Parameters

The table-1 showed the significant differences for number of days taken for initial and complete germination, germination percentage and survival percentage in different chemical treatments. The minimum (2.00) days required for initial germination, maximum number of seeds germinate (35.00), germination percentage (70.66%) at 30th DAS and also highest survival percentage (70.66%) was recorded in mechanical scarification and it was at par with GA3 @ 500 (24 hrs) at 120th DAS. The remarkable effect of mechanical scarification by hammering might be due to damaging the seed coat there by increased the permeability of air and water through seed which favors the early germination. These results are confirmation with Sukla and Solaki (2000) in chironji and Sharma (2016) found that Chironji seeds treated with GA3 @ 200 ppm for 24 hrs have considerably reduced the number of days taken germination (23.77) and increased the germination percentage (69.71 %).


Table 1 Effect of Different Scarification Methods on Seed Germination and Survival Percentage of Chironji Seedlings

Treatment

Number of days required for initial germination

Number of days required for complete germination

Germination (%)

Survival (%)

30 DAS

120 DAS

T1- Mechanical scarification

2.00

23.67

70.66

70.66

T2- Luke warm water

4.00

29.33

51.34

51.34

T3- GA3@ 500 ppm

2.33

25.33

68.66

68.66

T4- GA3@ 750 ppm

3.00

27.67

59.34

59.34

T5- GA3@ 1000 ppm

4.00

28.00

55.34

55.34

T6- H2SO4@ 5%

2.33

26.33

67.34

67.34

T7- Control

4.33

30.00

36.66

36.66

S.Em±

0.55

1.22

1.08

2.15

C.D. at 5%

1.71

3.79

3.35

6.70

CV%

30.34

7.76

6.38

6.38


Vegetative Parameters

The vegetative growth parameters viz., Seedling height, diameter, number of leaves, leaf area are the important parameters in assessing quality of seedlings. All the treatments seem to play positive role (Table-2) in improving the vegetative growth parameters of chironji under the present study. The maximum seedling height (8.35, 10.57, and 12.27, cm), seedling diameter (0.27, 0.36, and 0.41, cm), number of leaves @ seedling (8.27, 11.13, and 13.40) was found in treatment T1-Mechanical scarification at 60, 90 and 120 DAS respectively. The maximum leaf area (28.38 cm2) was also recorded in treatment T1-Mechanical scarification at 120 DAS. A possible reason for increased vegetative growth parameters i.e. seedling height, stem diameter, number of leaves, number of internodes, leaf area, shoot length and root length might be due to early germination is favored for better growth of chironji seedling and another reason should be the heredity characters of chironji mother plant. These finding are similar to Shukla and Solanki (2000), Narayan et al., (2014), Kumar (2017), Sharma (2016) and Joshi et al., (2017) in chironji. The increase seedling height with GA3 treatment might be due to the fact that this hormone increased osmotic uptake of nutrient, causing cell elongation and thus increasing height of seedling (Sen et al., 1990). The production of number of leaves might be due to higher growth of seedling also due to activity of GA3 at the apical meristem resulting in more synthesis of nucleoprotein responsible for increasing leaf initiation (Sen and Ghunti, 1976). The maximum leaf area might be due to increase in leaf length and width, which ultimately increase leaf area of the plant. Present findings are supported by Sharma (2016) in chironji


Biomass Parameters

The data presented in (Table -2) revealed that the shoot & root weight /length and ratio of chironji seedling were significantly influenced by different chemicals at the end of the experiment (120 DAS). The results revealed that among different chemical, maximum fresh weight of shoot and root (6.76 g and 4.17 g respectively) was recorded in treatment T1-Mechanical scarification. The maximum average shoot weight: root weight ratio (1.81) was observed in T3 - GA3 @ 500 ppm. A possible reason for this might be due to overall growth of the seedling and increased rate of photosynthesis that lead to the overall assimilation and redistribution of photosynthates within the seedling and hence, resulted in higher fresh shoot and fresh root weight. The results are in close conformity with the findings of Sharma (2016), Kumar (2017) and Joshi et al., (2017) in chironji. They revealed that the considerable improvement in fresh shoot weight (19.08 g) and fresh root weight (8.26 g) at 120th DAS. Similarly, Sharma (2016) in chironji also recorded the highest fresh and dry weight of roots (8.33g and 4.33g respectively) by treating seeds with mechanical scarification.


Table 2 Effect of Different Scarification Methods on Vegetative Growth and Biomass of Chironji Seedling

Treatment

Seedling height (cm)

Stem diameter (cm)

Number of leaves/seedling

Leaf area

(cm2)

120 DAS

Biomass (g)

60 DAS

90 DAS

120 DAS

60 DAS

90 DAS

120 DAS

60 DAS

90 DAS

120 DAS

Fresh weight

Shoot: Root weight ratio

Shoot

Root


T1

Mechanical scarification

08.35

10.97

12.97

0.27

0.36

0.41

08.27

11.13

13.40

28.38

6.76

4.17

02.70

T2- Luke warm water

06.58

09.32

11.27

0.18

0.25

0.28

06.47

08.73

11.20

17.67

3.34

2.15

01.15

T3- GA3

@ 500 ppm

07.49

09.67

11.43

0.25

0.34

0.36

07.53

10.47

12.67

22.49

4.99

2.76

03.55

T4- GA3

@ 750 ppm

06.87

09.20

11.33

0.22

0.27

0.31

07.27

09.87

12.13

19.69

3.80

2.30

02.89

T5- GA3

@ 1000 ppm

07.47

09.14

11.02

0.19

0.26

0.30

06.93

09.60

12.00

17.44

3.61

2.16

02.25

T6- H2SO4

@ 5%

07.68

10.35

12.18

0.23

0.31

0.35

07.60

10.27

12.60

20.73

4.11

2.74

03.00

T7- Control

06.25

08.17

10.27

0.17

0.23

0.27

06.27

08.80

10.93

12.32

3.23

2.01

01.00

S.Em±

0.23

0.21

0.06

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.17

0.21

0.18

0.46

0.05

0.03

-

C.D. at 5%

0.71

0.66

0.18

0.02

0.03

0.02

0.53

0.67

0.56

1.44

0.16

0.10

-

CV%

5.41

3.83

0.88

5.26

5.16

2.86

4.13

3.77

2.59

4.04

2.11

4.17

-


However, the maximum average shoots weight: root weight ratio (1.81) was observed in GA3 @ 500 ppm (T3) at the end of the experiment (120 DAS).


CONCLUSION:

It is concluded that the seed treated with mechanical scarification (Hammering) or seed soaked in GA3@500ppm for 24 hrs gave the early germination & maximum germination percentage with optimum vegetative growth & highest survival percentage of chironji seedling. Therefore, mechanical scarification or GA3 @ 500 ppm (24 hrs) could be used for enhancing early germination, higher germination percentage & production of vigorous seedling of chironji.


REFERENCES:

  1. Joshi, C. J., Sharma, D. K., Mutteppa, G., & Rajni, R. (2017). Effect of different chemicals on germination and seedling growth of Chironji (Buchanania lanzan spreng.). Plant Archives17(2), 1483-1486.

  2. Kumar, D. (2017). Studies on the effect of different pre sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling growth of chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.). MSc. thesis submitted to the Indhira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Raipur (CG).

  3. Kamal, N., Patra, H. K., & Dhruw, S. K. (2014). Standardization of propagation methods of Chironji (Buchnania lanzan Spreng). Asian Journal of Horticulture9(1), 283-284.

  4. Panse, V. G., & Sukhatme, P. V. (1967). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. Statistical methods for agricultural workers.

  5. Sen, S. K., Hore, J. K., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (1990). Pre-sowing seed treatment and its role on germination, seedling growth and longevity of papaya. Orissa Journal of Agricultural Research2(3-4), 160-164.

  6. Sen, S. K., & Ghunti, P. 1976. Effect of plant growth regulators and scarification on germination and seedling growth of chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.). Orissa J. Hort., 4, 38-43.

  7. Sharma, D. K. (2016). Effect of plant growth regulators and scarification on germination and seedling growth of Chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.). Advances in life sciences5(8), 3237-3241.

  8. Shukla, S. K., & Solanki, K. R. (2000). Studies on seed germination, plant survival and growth of chironji (Buchanania lanzan Spreng.). Journal of Tropical Forestry16(1), 44-49.

  9. Singh, R. V. (1982). Fodder Trees of India. Oxford and IBH Publication, New Delhi. 663.



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