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Go Back       IAR Journal of Agriculture Research and Life Sciences | IAR J Agri Res Life Sci, 2(5), | Volume:2 Issue:5 ( Sept. 30, 2021 ) : 18-21.
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DOI : 10.47310/iarjals.2021.v02i05.002       Download PDF       HTML       XML

Comparative Evaluation of Locally Formulated Feed and Three Commercial Feeds on the Growth Performance and Profitability of Broilers Production

Article History

Received: 31.08. 2021 Revision: 10. 09. 2021 Accepted: 20. 09 .2021 Published: 30. 09. 2021

Author Details

Hassan Sheriff*¹, Yusuf Baba Kime² and Kachalla Usman²

Authors Affiliations

1Registry Department, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria

2Rectory Department, Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic Geidam, Yobe State, Nigeria


Abstract: A study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of three commercially based feed and a locally formulated feed in order to determine the growth performance and profitability of broiler birds. Initially, a total of Two Hundred and Forty (240) birds -Day Old Chicks- were fed on the same commercially based starter ration under the same environmental condition for three consecutive weeks to serve as a brooding period. During this phase, the birds were randomly divided into four (4) treatments with each treatment further divided into 4 replications by Complete Randomised Design (CRD) of Fifteen (15) birds per replica. The treatments were labelled as T₁ (VF), T₂ (HF), T₃ (TF) and T₄ (Locally Formulated Feed). Proximate analyses of all the four feeds were run to determine the relative composition of parameters such as carbohydrate, crude fibre, Lipid, protein, etc. The average mean weight of the birds at the commencement of the study was ±430g as at the 3 weeks of brooding period. Consequently, the weight gain (g) were taken weekly and recorded for five consecutive. The result of the study indicates that the average weight gain in kilogramme (Kg) for T₁, T₂, T₃ and T₄ were 1.92, 1.69, 1.61 and 1.44 respectively. However the Feed cost in Naira (₦) per kg gain was 594.00, 505.92, 526.40 and 367.5 correspondingly for T₁, T₂, T₃ and T₄. This clearly indicates that although the three commercially based feeds are indisputably higher in terms of weight gain but their cost per kilogramme (Kg) is also on the escalation as compared with the Locally Formulated Feed whose cost per Kilogramme (Kg) is substantially lower even though it is also comparably lesser in terms of weight gain.


Keywords: Locally Formulated Feed and Three Commercial Feeds, Performance, Production.

INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria, poultry contributes significantly to the animal protein supply to the increasing populace. As a result of growing human population, there is high demand for poultry products (FAO, 2002). The advantage of poultry over other livestock is primarily due to the short and relatively quick turn over on investment and high quality protein products (Adeyemo et al., 2010). The contribution of broiler production is vital to the development of national economy through generating employment opportunity, additional income for household and improving the nutritional status of the people. It is one of the fastest growing sectors with bright future and plays a critical role in supplying nutritious food and creates the employment opportunity for educated unemployed youth. Broilers has shorter life cycle and its production requires less capital compared to other meat producing domestic animals.


Broiler chicken are raised for their palatable meat which has a high biological value than plant protein. Broiler production, apart from providing high quality animal protein, also generates quick return on investment and employment opportunities due to its short generation interval and general acceptability as there is no taboo against its production and consumption. According to Givens (2005), foods derives from animal products are important source of nutrients in human diets and play an increase role in the human nutrition in future. To increase protein intake in Nigeria, it therefore calls for urgent need to increase broiler production at both household and commercial holdings. Oluyemi and Robert (2000) and Isika et al., (2006) postulated that poultry was strategic in addressing animals’ protein intake shortage in human nutrition because of its high fecundity, fast growing rate, short generation interval and unparalleled competence in nutrient transformation to high quality animal protein. Broiler production involve the keeping of chicks of heavy meat breeds for the purpose of getting good quality meat products usually sold live or processed at ten to twelve weeks of age ( Amos, 2006 ).


According to Akpodiete et al., (2001), feed alone account for 70-80% of total variable cost of intensive broiler production. This invariably has led to an increase in the cost of poultry production due to high price of poultry products which is getting out of reach of common man in most developing countries including Nigeria. The increasing cost of feed resource in livestock production have been identified as a serious impediment to meeting the demand for animal protein particularly in developing countries ( Adejinmi et al., 2000 ). This continually recurring challenging has compelled the search for alternatives to the expensive gain and protein concentrates (Adeyemi, 2005). This interest has result in animal nutritionist researching for alternatives that could help to reduce the cost of feeding without negatively impacting on the performance of the birds. Replacement of the expensive conventional feed ingredient with cheaper and available substitutes represent a suitable strategy at reducing feed cost and encouraging production.


METHODOLOGY

The experimental feeds were comprised of farm formulated feed from locally available ingredients (sorghum, wheat offal, groundnut cake, soya bean etc,) as Treatment 4 (T4) and other three most commonly used commercial broiler feeds produce by different feed manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The commercial base feeds are labeled T1 for (VFF), T2 for (HFF) and T3 for (TFF). Each experimental feed coded T1, T2, T3, and T4 respectively, was replicated three times in a complete randomized design (CRD).


In all, a total number of 240 birds were bought at day old chicks and fed on a commercial broiler starter feed of the same ration under the same management condition for a period of three consecutive weeks before the commencement of the experiment. The birds were randomly divided into four treatment groups and each group was further divided into four replications of fifteen (15) birds per replica as earlier stated.


The birds were then subjected to the same experimental management condition with the different finisher feeds treatments and water provided ad-libitum. This was sustained and it lasted for five weeks.


Data collection

Data were collected on the initial body weight and final body weight. Weight gained at weekly interval and feed intake data were used to calculate feed conversion ratio (FCR). Feed cost per kilogram (Kg) was also calculated based on the prevailing market price of feed ingredients and commercial feeds, while the price of broilers based on weight were gotten after the experiment at prevailing market price for the determination of the cost and return of broiler production in Mai Idris Alooma Polytechnic, Geidam.


The following formulae were used for the calculation and analysis of the data obtained from the experiment;

Experimental Parameters:

  1. Specific Growth Rate (SGR)

SGR =

where;

Wf = final mean weight (g)

Wi = initial mean weight (g)

t = time interval


  1. Food Conversion Ratio (FCR)

FCR =

Where;

TFC = Total Feed Consumed (g)

TWG = Total Weight Gain by bird (g)


  1. Survival Percentage Rate (SPR)

SPR = ×100

Where;

Nh = Total number harvested.

Ns = Total number stocked.


  1. Gross margin (GM)

GM = TR – TVC

Where;

TR = Total Revenue.

TVC = Total Variable Cost


Statistical analysis employing analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate the significant difference in growth performance among the different feeds tested and the significant differences between the means.

Table 1: Proximate Composition of Different Feed Used:

Parameters (%)

T1

T2

T3

T4

Crude protein

22.41

18.90

17.50

19.76

Moisture

6.90

8.20

8.50

12.10

Crude fiber

6.50

14.50

20.00

16.50

Fat

5.00

5.00

10.00

3.50

Ash

1.50

2.00

2.00

1.00

Carbohydrate

62.69

56.40

52.00

47.64


RESULTS

The proximate analysis of the various treatments differed slightly in crude protein content, fiber and carbohydrate which showed T1 contain higher protein content of 22.41% followed by T4 19.76%, T2 18.90% and T3 17.50% respectively. The crude fiber was also higher in T3 (20.00%) flowed by T4 (16.50%) than those of T1 (6.50%) and T2 (14.50%) while highest carbohydrate percentage were observed in T1 (62.60%) and the lowest in T4 (47.64).


The mean feed conversion ratio (FCR) in different treatments was 2.055 for T1, 2.030 for T2, 2.098 for T3 and 2.033 for T4. The highest growth rate was recorded in T1 and the lowest in T4. During the experiment the survival rate recorded was higher on T1 followed by T2 and T3 respectively, while the lowest survival rate was observed in T4.


Table 2: The Growth Performance of Broilers Fed on Three Different Commercial Based Feeds and Locally Formulated Feed at Finisher Phase.

Parameters

T1

T2

T3

T4

±SE1

Initial weight (g)

430.12

430.05

430.11

430.30

0.029

Final weight (g)

2354.00a

2115.75b

2043.25bc

1873.75

37.966

Feed intake (g)

3955.00a

3422.22b

3385.55b

2935.50c

48.872

Weight gain (g)

1924.00a

1685.75b

1613.25b

1443.75

29.345

Growth rate (g)

54.97a

48.16b

46.09b

41.25c

2.062

Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR)

2.055

2.030

2.098

2.033

0.065

Survival rate (%)

95.50

94.00

94.00

92.50

1.240

Standard error of treatment means calculated from the residual means square in the analysis of variance.

Figure in the same row with the same superscripts are not significantly different (P>0.005)


The economic analysis of the cost evaluation (Table 3) revealed that the locally formulated finisher feed (T4) was cheaper to use and had lowest cost of N180.00 / kg feed.


Table 3: Economic analysis of broilers fed with different commercial feed and locally formulated feed

Parameters

T1

T2

T3

T4

Total feed intake (kg)

3.96

3.42

3.39

2.94

Feed cost (₦/kg)

288

250

250

180

Total feed cost (₦)

1140.48

855

847.5

529.2

Total weight gain (kg)

1.92

1.69

1.61

1.44

Feed cost (₦) per kg gain

594.00

505.92

526.40

367.5

Cost difference relative to local (₦/kg)

226.5

138.42

158.9

0.00


Figure Image is Available in PDF Format


Fig1. Graphical Presentation of the Weekly Weight Gain for the Four Different Treatments in Five Weeks


DISCUSSION

The effects of finisher feed treatments on growth performance of broiler birds showed that average feed intake ranged from 2935.50g to 3955g, average weight gain (WG) from 1443.75g to 1924g and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) 2.03 to 2.98 were significantly (P < 0.005) influenced by the treatments. These values were compatible with the report of Doma et al., (2001) in broilers fed different commercial diets.


Birds fed under T4 had the lowest feed intake FI (2935.50g) which resulted in significantly lower (1443.75g) weight gain (P < 0.005) as compared to other treatments.


This could be attributed to the low protein and higher fiber content of the feed. Similar observations were also made by Hussein et al., (2001), who reported that low protein diet leads to poor performance. The low weight might also be attributed to high fiber contents in the diet and is similar to the report of Mateos et al., (2012) who reported that feeding high fiber diets enhanced relative weight of intestine, caeca and sizes of various digestive components resulting in decreasing weight gain.


The economic analysis of the cost evaluation revealed that the locally formulated finisher feed (T4) was cheaper to use and had lowest cost of N180.00 / kg feed. The highest feed cost of N 288/kg was observed on T1. The low feed cost (N /kg feed) in locally formulated feeds during this study agreed with the finding of Afolayan et al., (2009) who reported that on the farm feeds are cheaper and may attract more profit to the farmer as compared to the commercial feeds.


Cost estimation showed that the locally formulated feed was cheaper to formulate and had least cost of N 180.00 / kg feed. This agrees with the report of Apantaku et al., (2006) in Oyo area where poultry farmers prefer and use locally formulated feeds instead of commercially compounded feeds, which is perceived to be of relatively high quality and lowest cost.


CONCLUSION

The study shows that most of the commercial feeds used in the study area could be successfully substituted by locally formulated feed at the finisher stage. Feeding locally formulated feed at finisher stage will be cheaper and may attract more profit to the farmer as compared to the commercial based feeds.


REFERENCES

  1. Adejinmi, O. O., Adejinmi, J. O., & Adeleye, I. O. A. (2000). Replacement value of fish meal with soldier fly larvae meal in broiler diets. Nigerian Poultry Science Journal1, 52-60.

  2. Adeyemi, O. A. (2005). Nutritional evaluation of broiler diets formulated with enriched unpeeled cassava root meal fermented with rumen filtrates (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis. University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria).

  3. Adeyemo, G. O., Ulughobo, A. D., & Adebiyi, O. A. (2010). The effect of graded level of dietary methionine on the haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers. Int. J. Poult Sci, 9(2), 158-161.

  4. Afolayan, M., Dafwang, I. I., & Omage, J. J. (2009). Performance of broilers fed on-farm versus commercial feeds. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production36(1), 41-51.

  5. Akpodiete, O. J., Okagbara, G. O., Omeje, S. I., & Orugun, J. A. (2001). Effect of roasting, boiling and boiling with potash on soyabean and its utilization by finishing broilers. In Proceeding of 6th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria held at the (pp. 50-52).

  6. Amos, T. T. (2006). Analysis of backyard poultry production in Ondo State, Nigeria. International Journal of poultry science5(3), 247-250.

  7. Apantaku, S. O., Oluwalana, E. O. A., & Adepegba, O. A. (2006). Poultry farmers’ preference and use of commercial and self-compounded feeds in Oyo area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Agriculture and human values23(2), 245-252.

  8. Doma, U. D., Muhammad, A. S., Bello, K. M., & Ugbeh, E. (2001). Performance of Broilers chickens fed with local formulated fed and commercial feeds. Nigerian Journal of Tropical Agriculture3, 83-86.

  9. FAO (2002) World Agriculture; toward 2015/2030 summary report. Rome, Italy. 106.

  10. Givens, D. I. (2005). The role of animal nutrition in improving the nutritive value of animal-derived foods in relation to chronic disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society64(3), 395-402.

  11. Hussein, A. S., Cantor, A. H., Pescatore, A. J., Gates, R. S., Burnham, D., Ford, M. J., & Paton, N. D. (2001). Effect of low protein diets with amino acid supplementation on broiler growth. Journal of Applied Poultry Research10(4), 354-362.

  12. Isika, M. A., Agiang, E. A., & Okon, B. I. (2006). Dietary energy and crude protein requirements for chicks of Nigeria local fowl and crossbreeds. Int. J. Poult. Sci5, 271-274.

  13. Mateos, G. G., Jiménez-Moreno, E., Serrano, M. P., & Lázaro, R. P. (2012). Poultry response to high levels of dietary fiber sources varying in physical and chemical characteristics. Journal of Applied Poultry Research21(1), 156-174.

Oluyemi, J. A., & Robert, F. A. (2000). Poultry production in warm climate. Macmillan press Ltd. London, 197.


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